Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
Prompted by encountering or witnessing a horrifying circumstance, Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychological health disorder. The symptoms of the condition incorporate nightmares, flashbacks, austere anxiety and unregulated thoughts regarding the dismaying circumstance (National Institutes of Health, 2017). Nonetheless, multiple individuals who undergo traumatic events experience challenges reverting to normal and handling it for a while yet they do not have PTSD as after a while of self-care they get to feel better. In the occasion the symptoms get severe that is going several months or years and thus interrupting the typical daily operations, an individual may be having PTSD. Seeking medical attention following PTSD symptoms is vital in reducing the symptoms and improving operation. In this way, Johnny’s case is the most appropriate in understanding PTSD particularly its risk factors, diagnosis, referral criteria, intervention, prevention and treatment.
Diagnosis of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
Johnny is suffering from PTSD a diagnosis reached using the diagnostic criteria from DSM-5. In the first place, Johnny was directly exposed to a serious injury which could have resulted in death. He reencounters the traumatic events nightmares, intrusive thoughts and flashbacks that prevent him from going to the cafeteria (Kilpatrick, Resnick, Milanak, Miller, Keyes & Friedman, 2013). Further, Johnny exhibits trauma-related feelings and thoughts through placing a kitchen knife at his bedside table or hiding in the bathroom during lunchtime to avoid going to the cafeteria. Also, Johnny’s case is PTSD as demonstrated by poor performance in school indicating reduced interest in the school activities. Apart from the negative affect, Johnny isolation, particularly during lunchtime, are also key indicators PTSD. Additionally, Johnny keeping the kitchen knife at his bedside table is risky and destructive as he may injure the parents especially when they come to check up on him at night. Hypervigilance demonstrated by indicating that the cafeteria is not a safe place is also certified that John has PTSD. Further, the symptoms have lasted over a month and they are not due to drug abuse, medication or other illnesses.
Rescue Workers in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
The reaction of children to traumatizing events is largely impacted by the manner the grownups responds to the circumstances. Therefore, the rescue workers after the knife violence ought to safeguard the children from more harm through taking them away from the sight of the traumatic event and sound of the wounded (Kilpatrick, Resnick, Milanak, Miller, Keyes & Friedman, 2013). While taking away the children, the rescue workers need to kind yet strong in ensuring the children leave the site of the violence. After the children are removed from the site of the violent circumstance, the rescue workers are supposed to aid determining the severely distressed children until they are settled down. The rescue will know the acutely affected children through trembling, long silence, rambling and intermittent conduct such as remaining still, loud cries or rage among others. Lastly, the rescue workers should be an example through being tolerant of the challenging conduct and intense emotions. Moreover, they should ensure they are compassionate through giving swift hugs or comforting words.
Parents of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Patients
Although Johnny requires a mental health professional help, his parents would play a significant part in aiding him to recover. Firstly, the parents would ensure they pay attention to Johnny that is acknowledge his feelings, listen and aid him to handle the brutal reality (Friedman, Resick, Bryant & Brewin, 2011). Also, the parents would reduce the pressure for him to perform well in school, avoid wrangles at home, ensure that he eats properly and allow him to continually mingle with friends and family members he likes. The parents will also be required to monitor Johnny’s healing. The monitoring will include knowing that healing will take time, look out for severe reactions and observe for behavioral changes, language utilization and intense emotions. The parents reassuring Johnny, supporting him and reminding him that they love him is also significant in the healing process.
After a direct exposure to a traumatic event, the symptoms such as flashbacks, suicidal thoughts, sad or depression, racing heart and sweating, emotional numbness and easily being startled requires immediate intervention (Friedman, Resick, Bryant & Brewin, 2011). The intervention ought to include being referred to a mental health specialist. Also, caregivers should also look out for difficulties sleeping and concentrating, aggression, and experience positive effect. Other factors to monitor include lack of the capacity to remember exactly what transpired during the traumatic occurrence, physical reactivity, intrusive thoughts and emotional distress. The exhibition of several of these behavioral and emotional traits especially for a period persist one month will require the victim to be referred to mental health doctor.
Preventing School Violence
Students’ actions, inspiration and attitude are affected by the physical surrounding. Learning institutions that are cleaning and without graffiti have reduced chances of students being violent. Also, the learning institutions should develop school-based programs targeting to boost social skills that are advocating for positive associations, straightforwardly deliberating safety issues, managing matters respectively, proffer platforms where learners can share and thus feel comfortable and safe to vent their emotions (Friedman, Resick, Bryant & Brewin, 2011). Further, schools need to adjust flows of traffic to reduce the chances of adverse learners meeting. The division of entrance and exit of the cafeteria, alternating the start and the end of the lunch break, limiting the time and augmenting staff monitoring traffic flow along hallways to prevent negative actions. Lastly, the school administration could restrict access or totally lock out learners from the school building during the non-school times will reduce violence in school. However, different schools face unique set of risk factors. Therefore, investigations should be undertaken in schools to determine the exact risk factors and consequently customize a prevention system to avert violence in the schools.
Friedman, M. J., Resick, P. A., Bryant, R. A., & Brewin, C. R. (2011). Considering PTSD for DSM-5. Depression & Anxiety, 28, 750-769. doi:10.1002/da.20767
Help for Assessment. (2017, March 18). How to write a case brief.
Kilpatrick, D. G., Resnick, H. S., Milanak, M. E., Miller, M. W., Keyes, K. M., & Friedman, M. J. (2013). National estimates of exposure to traumatic events and PTSD prevalence using DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26, 537-547. doi:10.1002/jts.21848
National Institutes of Health. (2017, January 13). Retrieved from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd/index.shtml